LCA Distal Macro | The Methodology Center

LCA Distal Macro



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LCA Distal Macro:


Tech Report:


Users' Guide:


Users' Guide Examples:



%LCA_Distal Technical Report


%LCA_Distal SAS Macro Users' Guide (v. 3.0)


%LCA_Distal SAS Macro Examples


How to run a SAS macro

4-minute video: How to run a SAS macro


The SAS %LCA_Distal macro estimates the association between a latent class variable and a distal outcome using a model-based approach. The %LCA_Distal macro works with PROC LCA and SAS, version 9.1 or higher.


NOTE: %LCA_Distal version 3.0 and higher are compatible with PROC LCA v. 1.3.2 and higher. Standard errors will not be generated with older versions of PROC LCA. 


Read about latent class analysis or latent transition analysis.



The %LCA_Distal macro provides a model-based approach to estimating the association between C and Z.Features:

  • requires simple, minimal syntax
  • estimates class-specific probabilities for binary and categorical distal outcomes
  • estimates means and modes for count and continuous distal outcomes
  • output includes class-specific conditional densities for continuous distal outcomes
  • accommodates distal outcomes for multiple groups
  • provides standard errors for the binary case (must use PROC LCA v. 1.3.2 or higher)






Recommended Citations

LCA Distal SAS Macro (Version 3.0) [Software]. (2015). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from

Dziak, J. D., Yang, J., Tan, X., Bray, B. C., & Wagner, A. T., & Lanza, S. T. (2015). Lca distal SAS macro users' guide (Version 3.0). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from

Need Help?

For help with PROC LCA, consult our FAQ. If you have questions or comments about the macro, please email


If your organization does not permit download and installation of files, please contact us with a shipping address and we will provide a CD containing all downloadable files.

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