Bethany Bray, Ph.D. | The Methodology Center

Bethany Bray, Ph.D.

Bethany BrayResearch Associate, The Methodology Center


The Methodology Center

The Pennsylvania State University

400 Calder Square II

State College, PA 16801



Dr. Bray's Website

Dr. Bray's Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Bray's NIH Biosketch



Ph.D., Penn State, 2007 (Human Development and Family Studies)

M.A.S., Penn State, 2006 (Applied Statistics)

M.S., Penn State, 2005 (Human Development and Family Studies)

B.S., University of Michigan-Dearborn, 2000 (Mathematics and Applied Statistics)



Research Interests

My research focuses on developing and applying advanced statistical methods to questions about the longitudinal development of alcohol and other drug use, with a special emphasis on its relation to the development of comorbid problem behaviors like gambling and risky sexual behavior. My methodological research is motivated by challenges faced in substance use disorders research, and it provides new ways to address questions that arise in the area of substance use and comorbid problem behavior. Toward that end, I work on longitudinal, latent variable modeling, including latent class and latent transition analysis and their extensions.

Current Grants

Consequences of Adolescent Substance Use on the Development of Impulse Control

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health

2010-2015; Role: Co-investigator (PI: Donald M. Dougherty)


Relating Brain Maturation to Impulse Control and Substance Use Development

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health

2012-2017; Role: Co-investigator (PIs: Ashley Acheson & Donald M. Dougherty)


Current Projects and Collaborators

At the Methodology Center, I work with Stephanie Lanza on latent class analysis and its extensions.



Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications

Acheson, A., Wijtenburg, A. S., Rowland, L. M., Winkler, A., Gaston, F., Mathias, C. W., ... Kochunov, P. (in press). Combining diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study reduced frontal white matter integrity in youths with family histories of substance use disorders. Human Brain Mapping. PMC Journal – In Process (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Foti, R. J., Thompson, N. J., & Wills, S. F. (in press). Disentangling the effects of self leader perceptions and ideal leader prototypes on leader judgments using loglinear modeling with latent variables. Human Performance. PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Ridenour, T. A., Halliburton, A., & Bray, B. C. (in press). Does DSM-5 nomenclature for inhalant use disorder improve upon DSM-IV? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. NIHMSID: NIHMS595260 (abstract) 

Bray, B. C., Lanza, S. T., & Tan, X. (2014). Eliminating bias in classify-analyze approaches for latent class analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2014.935265 NIHMSID: NIHMS595254 (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Lee, G. P., Liu, W., Storr, C. L., Ialongo, N. S., & Martins, S. S. (2014). Transitions in gambling participation during late adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health55(2), 188-194.  doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.001 NIHMSID: NIHMS567710 (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., Cooper, B. R., & Bray, B. C. (2014). Population heterogeneity in the salience of multiple risk factors for adolescent delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(3), 319-325. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.09.007 PMCID: PMC3943167 (abstract)

James, L. M., Mathias, C. W., Bray, B. C., Cates, S. E., Farris, S. J., Dawes, M. A., … Dougherty, D. M. (2013). Acquisition of rater agreement for the Stressful Life Events Schedule. Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, 1(5), 1-5. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.10000124 PMC Journal – In process (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., Tan, X., & Bray, B. C. (2013). Latent class analysis with distal outcomes: A flexible model-based approach. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 20, 1-20. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2013.742377 NIHMSID: NIHMS591510 (abstract)

Smith, R. C., Coyle, P. T., Baldner, C., Bray, B. C., & Geller, E. S. (2013). A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: A pattern-oriented approach. Addictive Behaviors, 38(4)2080-2083. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.01.003 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Foti, R. J., Bray, B. C., Thompson, N. J., & Allgood, S. F. (2012). Know thy self, know thy leader: A pattern-oriented approach to examining leader perceptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(4), 702-717. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.03.007 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Tisminetzky, M., Bray, B. C., Miozzo, R., Aupont, O., & McLaughlin, T. J. (2012). Classes of depression, anxiety and functioning in acute coronary syndrome patients. American Journal of Health Behavior, 36(1), 20-30. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.36.1.3 PMCID: PMC3704170 (abstract)

White, S. W., Bray, B. C., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Examining shared and unique aspects of social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorder using factor analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 874-884. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1325-7 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Mathias, C. W., Blumenthal, T. D., Dawes, M. A., Liguori, A., Richard, D. M., Bray, B. C., ... Dougherty, D. M. (2011). Failure to sustain prepulse inhibition in adolescent marijuana users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116(1-3), 110-116. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.020 PMCID: PMC3091950 (abstract)

Tisminetzky, M., Bray, B. C., Miozzo, R., Aupont, O., Locke, S., & McLaughlin, T. J. (2011). Identifying symptom profiles of depression and anxiety in patients with an acute coronary syndrome using latent class and latent transition analysis. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine42(2), 195-210. doi: 10.2190/PM.42.2.g PMCID: PMC3712857 (abstract)

White, S. W., Ollendick, T. H., & Bray, B. C. (2011). College students on the autism spectrum: Prevalence and associated problems. Autism15(6), 683-701. doi:10.1177/1362361310393363 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Lanza, S. T., & Collins, L. M. (2010). Modeling relations among discrete developmental processes: A general approach to associative latent transition analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 17(4), 541-569. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2010.510043 PMCID: PMC3094019 (abstract)

Davidson, J. E., Irizarry, M. C., Bray, B. C., Wetten, S., Galwey, N., Gibson, R. ... Monsch, A. U. (2010). An exploration of cognitive subgroups in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(2), 233-243. doi:10.1017/S1355617709991160 PMCID: PMC2903844 (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., & Bray, B. C. (2010). Transitions in drug use among high-risk women: An application of latent class and latent transition analysis. Advances and Applications in Statistical Sciences3(2), 203-236. PMCID: PMC3171700  (abstract)

Koukounari, A., Webster, J. P., Donnelly, C. A., Bray, B. C., Naples, J., Bosompem, K., & Shiff, C. (2009). Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra, Ghana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80(3), 435-441. PMCID: PMC2726788 (abstract)

White, H. R., Bray, B. C., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2009). Transitions into and out of light and intermittent smoking from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11(2), 211-219. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntn017 PMCID: PMC2658905 (abstract)

Ridenour, T. A., Bray, B. C., & Cottler, L. B. (2007). Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91(1), 40-49. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.05.004 PMCID: PMC2040516 (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Almirall, D., Zimmerman, R. S., Lynam, D., & Murphy, S. A. (2006). Assessing the total effect of time-varying predictors in prevention research. Prevention Science, 7(1), 1-17. doi:10.1007/s11121-005-0023-0 PMCID: PMC1479302 (abstract)

Book Chapters

Lanza, S. T., Bray, B. C., & Collins, L. M. (2013). An introduction to latent class and latent transition analysis. In J. A. Schinka, W. F. Velicer, & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Research methods in psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 691-716). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Ridenour, T. A., Bray, B. C., Scott, H. S., & Cottler, L. B. (2008). Classification and assessment of substance use disorders in adolescents. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Adolescent addiction: Epidemiology, assessment, and treatment (Practical resources for the mental health professional). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

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